Mechanism of radiation-induced emesis

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Published by Defense Nuclear Agency in Washington, DC .

Written in English

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  • Vomiting.

Edition Notes

Book details

Other titlesMechanism of radiation induced emesis.
StatementD.O. Carpenter.
SeriesDNA-TR -- 88-5, Technical report (United States. Defense Nuclear Agency) -- DNA-TR-88-5.
ContributionsUnited States. Defense Nuclear Agency.
The Physical Object
Pagination1 v.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL22446736M

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There remains considerable controversy over the mechanism of radiation-induced emesis. It is well known that the abdomen is the most sensitive site; therefore it is unlikely that emesis results from a direct action on any central neural : David O Carpenter.

Mechanism of radiation-induced emesis by David O. Carpenter. Published by Defense Nuclear Agency in Washington, DC. Written in English. Nausea and vomiting following radiation exposure are factors which may seriously limit the ability of humans to perform in military situations and are side effects of such significance in radiation therapy that they may limit the patient's acceptance of treatment regimes (1).

At doses of Gy approximately 50% of humans experience nausea and vomiting, while at Gy the figure approaches %.Author: David O Carpenter.

Scientific investigation has defined the basic physiology of radiation-induced emesis, but the underlying mechanisms and the definition of an effective anti-emetic regimen remain unresolved. Within that context, this paper will review the radiobiology of emesis and the implications of the current research (see Fig.

1).Cited by: Get this from a library. Mechanism of radiation-induced emesis. [David O Carpenter; United States.

Defense Nuclear Agency.]. Andrews PLR and Davis CJ: The mechanism of emesis induced by anti-cancer therapies. In: Andrews PLR and Sanger GJ eds Emesis in Anti-Cancer Therapy, Mechanisms and Treatment.

Chapman and Hall Medical, London pp – Google ScholarCited by: 3. INTRODUCTION The mechanism of radiation-induced emesis (RIE) has been difficult to evaluate because of the many variables attributed to its genesis.

The intensity and severity of emesis will vary according to the site treated, the daily and total dose delivered, prior cytotoxic therapy, and the psychological and metabolic state of the by:   [3,12] These studies have reported the abdomen or pelvic region to be the most critical organs responsible for radiation-induced emesis.

Similarly, Enblom et al [ 3 ] study reported that nausea was more frequent in those receiving RT to the lower abdomen or pelvis compared to the head and neck area radiated by: 3. At or near the top of their concerns is the common adverse effect (AE) of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).

When CINV goes untreated, it affects upwards of 60% to 80% of. A similar mechanism has been proposed to explain the beneficial effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in nausea and vomiting induced by systemic irradiation.

Glucocorticoids have a slow onset of action, and their benefit is limited to prophylactic by: Abstract. The introduction of new antiemetics has resulted in renewed interest in the etiology and control of radiation-induced emesis. Studies both with fractionated treatment and with high-dose single exposures have clearly demonstrated the value of the 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist antiemetics.

This paper reviews the selection of optimal by: The mechanism of radiation-induced emesis remains unclear, but release of serotonin from the gastrointestinal enterochromaffin cells and subsequent involvement of the gastrointestinal 5-HT 3 receptors and vagal afferent fibers is most likely.

The following papers were presented at an international symposium on the mechanisms and treatment of nausea and vomiting in man held in Oxford in I believe that this meeting was the first occasion on which representatives from such a wide variety of scientific and clinical specialities had.

Metoclopramide in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Br J Anaesth ; 83 (5): – The present studies were designed to attempt to determine the roles of the area postrema and the vagus in radiation-induced- emesis by ablation and electrophysiological studies, and to test the.

The aim of the research presented in this book was to further understand the mechanisms of UV induced immune suppression in both mice and humans. The research focuses on the role of urocanic acid, cytokines, and wavelength interactions and examines their involvement in.

ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about: 1. Definition of Vomiting 2. Events takes Places During Vomiting 3. Mechanism. Definition of Vomiting: Vomiting is a reflex which serves to relieve the upper G.I.

tract by forcible expulsion of gastric contents through the mouth. This may occur either because the contents are irritating or because [ ]. Editorial Reviews.

Reviewer: Description: Nausea and vomiting are high on the list of distressing symptoms of cancer and its treatment. This first edition book is a comprehensive and authoritative resource regarding recent developments on the mechanisms underlying treatment-induced nausea and vomiting, pharmacologic management, and methods for evaluating antiemetic Price: $ Background Radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) is common occurrence in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy.

When radiation is prescribed to certain sites, it can lead to retching. Vomiting is a forceful expulsion of the contents of the stomach and sometimes the gut. The whole mechanism is guided and controlled by the brain and its vomiting centre.

Vomiting is the forceful expulsion of contents of the stomach and often, the proximal small intestine. It is a manifestation of a large number of conditions, many of which are not primary disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.

Regardless of cause, vomiting can have serious consequences, including acid-base derangments, volume and electrolyte. The Organisation of Vomiting as a Protective Reflex: A commentary on the first day’s discussions.- Section II. Clinical Aspects.- Mechanisms and Treatment of Cytotoxic-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.- Mechanisms and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.- Mechanisms and Treatment of Motion Illness.-Author: Christopher J.

Davis. Mechanisms and Management of Nausea and Emesis Associated with Cancer Therapy (Oncology): Medicine & Health Science Books @   X-irradiation-induced emesis was investigated in Suncus murinus, a house musk shrew. Whole body X-irradiation caused emesis, and the calculated ED50 We use cookies to enhance your experience on our by: Receptor mechanism and antiemetic activity of structurally-diverse cannabinoids against radiation-induced emesis in the least shrew.

Darmani NA, Janoyan JJ, Crim J, Ramirez J. Source Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Western University of Health Sciences, East Second Street, Pomona, CAUSA.

[email protected] Background: Assessing the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture therapy for treating patients with radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) is the main purpose of this systematic review protocol.

Methods: The following electronic databases will be searched from inception to Sep Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, China National.

Review Article Prophylactic Management of Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting PetraFeyer, 1 FranziskaJahn, 2 andKarinJordan 2 Department of Radiotherapy, Vivantes Medical Center Berlin-Neuk ¨olln,RudowerStraße, Berlin,Germany Department of Internal Medicine IV, Hematology and Oncology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF CHEMOTHERAPY-INDUCED NAUSEA AND VOMITING • 5 How chemotherapeutic agents produce an emetic response Chemotherapy agents may cause emesis through effects at a number of sites.

The mechanism that is best supported by research involves an effect on the upper small Size: KB. National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (SC19), Wong RK, Paul N, et al.

5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist with or without short-course dexamethasone in the prophylaxis of radiation induced emesis: a placebo-controlled randomized trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (SC19).

Major Classes of Antiemetic Drugs 5-HT3 receptor antagonists – ‘setrons’ (e.g. ondansetron, palonosetron) Used to suppress chemotherapy- and radiation-induced emesis and post-operative nausea and vomiting Block peripheral and central 5-HT3 receptors (cation-selective ion channels) AP (containing CTZ) and NTS Peripheral terminal in gut.

Nausea or vomiting is caused by a variety of medications or other noxious agents. The overall goal of treatment should be to prevent or eliminate nausea and vomiting regardless of etiology. Treatment options for nausea and vomiting include drug and nondrug modalities such as relaxation, biofeedback, and self-hypnosis.

The Organisation of Vomiting as a Protective Reflex: A commentary on the first day's discussions.- Section II. Clinical Aspects.- Mechanisms and Treatment of Cytotoxic-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.- Mechanisms and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.- Mechanisms and Treatment of Motion Illness The book refers to the latest American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO), and Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) guidelines and will be a useful resource for oncologists, oncology fellows, general physicians, and other HCPs wishing to learn more about the effective.

The mechanisms underlying radiation-induced emesis are poorly understood. For example, in dog (11) it has been reported that integrity of area postrema is critical but that vagal integrity is not. In the cat it is reported that the vagus is the primary path-way for radiation-induced emesis (12).

We have studied emesis following radia. T1 - Dexamethasone for the prophylaxis of radiation-induced emesis T2 - A national cancer institute of canada clinical trials group phase III study AU - Kirkbride, PeterCited by: Vomiting can also be referred to as emesis, and consists of three stages: nausea is an unpleasant sensation of wanting to vomit; retching is a strong involuntary effort to vomit; and vomiting is the forceful expulsion of the stomach's contents through the mouth.

Nausea and vomiting can be caused by a wide range of stimuli, including illness, drugs and psychological factors. Latest advances in the management of radiation-induced pain flare, nausea and vomiting Nicholas Chiu 1, Leonard Chiu 1, Marko Popovic 1, Carlo DeAngelis 1, Mark Pasetka 1, Stephen Lutz 2, Na Zhang 3, Gustavo Nader Marta 4,5, Lucas Castro Mendez 4, Breanne Lechner 1, Natalie Pulenzas 1, Milica Milakovic 1, Ronald Chow 1, Edward Chow 1.

The following papers were presented at an international symposium on the mechanisms and treatment of nausea and vomiting in man held in Oxford in I believe that this meeting was the first occasion on which representatives from such a wide variety of scientific and clinical specialities had come together to review and debate the spectrum.

Vomiting is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may be present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing lty: Gastroenterology.

Abstract. Purpose: To investigate international patterns of practice in the management of radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV). Methods and Materials: Oncologists prescribing radiation therapy in the United States, Canada, The Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, Spain, Italy, France, Hong Kong, Singapore, Cyprus, and Israel completed a Web-based survey that was based on 6.

Peptide-induced emesis in dogs: possible relevance to radiation-induced emesis. Final report Oct Sep This handbook for teachers and students was formulated based on the recommendations of a Consultants Meeting on International Syllabus for Radiobiology Teaching held .David O.

Carpenter has written: 'Mechanism of radiation-induced emesis' -- subject(s): Vomiting 'Mechanisms of radiation-induced emesis' -- subject(s): Vomiting Asked in .

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